The matrilineal agricultural people of central Zambia require that males offer sacrifices to the ancestors on the right side of a doorway, while females offer sacrifices on the left. Encyclopedia.com. The living must avoid and respect the resting places of the dead. The Invention of Africa. In many African societies deceased souls live in forests, rivers, riverbanks, hills, or other natural places. Proper burial rites and ceremonies ensure a peaceful passage. Contact with Catholicism in Brazil, Cuba, and Haiti produced new forms of religious syncretism called Candomblé, Santeria, and Vodun. Often The purpose of this is to help to orient a person who would like to work in the context of Africa. Priests, priestesses, diviners, elders, chiefs, kings, and other authority figures may perform sacred and ceremonial rituals. Personal or individual rituals often surround events that happen in everyday life. ple who primarily follow African traditional religion; however, there are also Christians and Muslims who still practice elements of traditional African religion alongside their professed beliefs. $18.00 Western colonialists negotiated and drafted treaties with African leaders, stripping Africans of their lands, depopulating the countryside, destabilizing their economies, overturning political rule, and uprooting cultural and lineage continuity. Male initiates leave the village, and while they are still in the presence of family and friends, they remove their clothing. They began to abandon their doctrinal, orthodox, and christocentric views of African religion. It deals with their cosmology, ritual practices, symbols, arts, society and so on .because religion is a way of life, it relates to culture and society as they affect the worldview of the African people. Yoruba Beliefs and Sacrificial Rites. Thus, traditional funerary ritual in many cases has been effective in inspiring wise use of natural resources. In African traditional religions guidance is provided through myths, which are handed down orally. Next are divinities and ancestors, who represent the invisible world. Some of the academic priests, including Parrinder, Father Placid Temple, and Zaireois V. Mulago, were influenced by the inclusive views of liberal theology developed by Protestant and Catholic academic theologians in North American and European universities. Among many African ethnic groups, however, some sets of oral narratives exist that serve as sacred texts. They were expected to assess colonial projects, predict the behavior of the natives, distinguish between rumor and fact, and develop mechanisms for colonial command and control. During these events usually an offering is made to honour, please and thank the ancestors. It is most often used to…, Pan-Africanism is an internationalist philosophy that is based on the idea that Africans and people of African descent share a common bond. Khapoya, V.B. In festivals commemorating the deeds of the gods, ancestors, and sacred kings, devotees There is much ritual involved with initiation, which is a time for the younger generation to learn how to be contributing members of society. Unlike Western myth, which seems partial to the reign of sky beings and portrays heaven as the abode of the Supreme Being, many African cosmologies consider the sky and the earth as equally significant spheres through which the divine create an enchanted universe. Thus, newborn grandsons take the name of their deceased grandfathers. In contemporary Africa the persistence of sacred practices is a source of conflict between devotees of African religions and outsiders. Many traditional African religions believe in mysterious forces and magic. Elders, priests, and priestesses have served as guardians of the sacred traditions. Newborns are said to come from the place of the ancestors, not necessarily in actual physical Beliefs and practices of ancestor worship vary according to the local culture and religious traditions. The most significant superhuman being is the Supreme God, who represents universality and greatness. There is a continuing belief about the sacredness of lizards and chameleons in Zulu culture. Ifa Divination: Communication between Gods and Men in West Africa. Religion and Society in Central Congo: The Bakongo of Lower Zaire. They retain membership in their family, community, clan, and kin groups. Religious traditions reinforce the idea that family members must adhere to specific roles. In African traditional religions it is believed that ancestors sometimes experience what is generally referred to as reincarnation. In other cases the Supreme Being instructs lesser deities on how to create by providing them with materials to undertake By invoking tribal myth and historic symbols, they galvanize members of their communities at home and abroad to contribute to the economic growth of villages, towns, and communities. In African cosmological narratives creation is always portrayed as a complex process, whether the universe is said to have evolved from preexisting matter or from divine thought. From greatest to least significance, African traditional religions begin the hierarchy with a being or god who remains supreme. Spirits are the connection between the living and the invisible worlds. Traditional devotees in the New World realized that, to preserve their religious heritage, they had to accept converts. It is common for the various African gods and deities to have their own yearly festivals. The chief was the link between the living and the dead, and his highest role was when he officiated in the public religious rites which gave expression to the community values. Africa 51, no. African Traditional religion (ATR) is one of the world religions with a great people and a great past. E-mail Citation » Scholarly articles on Islam and on Christian and non-Christian religious diasporas. According to African traditional beliefs, deities normally prefer certain foods and drinks and abstain from others. Olupona, Jacob K., ed. Nevertheless, the truths and myths conveyed through an Africa, the place of origin of all humankind, is divided into numerous political and cultural regions, reflecting its diverse range of histories, ethnicities, languages, beliefs, attitudes, and behaviors. During this period many scholars of African religious studies were passionately nationalistic. Masks, costumes, and body design accompany religious ceremonies. The names given to the specific deities in Benin may vary slightly from those of the Yoruba. In addition to abstract forms, many religious artists borrow from forms found in nature—such as insects, trees, leafs, and animals—to produce intricate design motifs. "How Man Makes God in West Africa: Yoruba Attitudes toward the Orisa." The early African scholarship of J.B. Danquah (1895–1965) from Ghana and J. Olumide Lucas (from Nigeria) in the first part of the twentieth century produced interesting studies of African indigenous religion. Among the scholars responding to accusations that Africans lack a notion of God was E. Bolaji Idowu, who did research on the Yoruba Supreme God, publishing Olodumare: God in Yoruba Belief in 1962. By ministering to deities and humans in liturgical worship, the clergy learn these rituals and languages. African traditional religions are a communal endeavor, and it is not required that an individual believe in every element. Stephen W. Angell Traditional artists typically carve images that express the powers of God, demigods, ancestors, and spirits as intermediaries between deities and humans. During the 1980s and 1990s many African scholars began to study abroad. Traditional African religion is a way of life in which ancestors are part of every major event such as wedding, births and deaths as well as less important ones such as getting a job and finishing university. The Bambara fear that the death of a lineage head may disturb the entire lineage. A cow, sheep or chicken is slaughtered and the ancestors are called to receive the offering and bless the gathering. Merriam, Alan P. An African World: The Basongye Village of Lupupa Ngye. At such shrines the living may communicate with the departed person; the family may also convey messages to God through the deceased. A youth undergoes the rituals in seclusion with children of the same age. Nehanda, considered an incarnation of an oracle spirit, was eventually hanged by colonial authorities in 1898. Even with the advance of literacy and the impact of Islam and Christianity in Africa, the king continues to function as a sacred canopy under which foreign traditions are subsumed and celebrated. Most significantly, the deceased must have lived to an old age, meaning that they will have possessed wisdom and experience. They are used only for ceremonies, rituals, prayers, and sacrifices. On important occasions (such as hunting expeditions, healing ceremonies, and rites of passage), the faithful honor their gods, ancestors, and spirits with ritual festivals, ceremonies, divination, and animal sacrifice. This myth gives credence to the importance of the underworld as the sphere that nourishes human life. This occurred especially in Brazil, Peru, Cuba, Trinidad, Haiti, Puerto Rico, and other locations where African populations were extensive. Devotees of African traditional religions often perform rituals to induce rain; such rituals feature dancing, singing, and chanting. In African traditional religions certain days are declared by community leaders to honor the gods. In the cosmology of the Dagara (an ethnic group in the Niger region of West Africa), for instance, the wheel or circle represents the cyclical nature of life as well as of the Earth. 13 numbers of adherents of African religion. ." If the living maintain a cordial relationship with the ancestors, one of the spirits returns to be reborn into the lineage. Today, Africans profess a wide variety of religious beliefs, the most common of which are Christianity and Islam; perhaps less than 15% still follow traditional African religions. They counteracted various derogatory names given to AIR. Only by giving a belief system a proper name can a comprehensive, complex theology and cosmology emerge, along with a mor… Then there are priests and holy persons, who are intermediaries between the seen (the living) and the unseen worlds. The fact that myths have endured for generations gives them their authority. All kinds of seeds and the most delicious parts of domesticated crops are appropriate for ritual offerings. Although most body art carries little association with Ògún (the Yoruba god of iron), raised-scarification design has been associated with Ògún because Yoruba body artists traditionally use iron implements to create intricate patterns and shapes on the skin. Deities are usually represented by signs or symbols on clothing or the skin. This book highlights and discusses the common elements which introduce African Traditional Religion as one unified religion and not a collection of religions. ••• The arts are used to convey feelings, illustrate proverbs, express the wisdom of the people, and give spiritual meaning and function to inanimate objects. The symbol can be found throughout Ghana. The uninitiated are the rest of the members of the religious group, who have not performed any major initiation rituals that qualify them to serve in the group's inner circles. Departments of religious studies did not appear in East Africa until the 1960s. By the 1700s Islam had diversified and grown popular. As goddess of peace and mother of her people, Alà provides and protects them, deriving her great strength from the land. In Encyclopedia of Africa South of the Sahara, edited by John Middleton. For example, African cosmogony posits the existence of a Supreme Being who created the universe and everything in it. The Main Characteristics of African Traditional Religion.ATR) to the two mission religions. Younger generations must care for their elders, children must obey their parents and elders, and parents must teach, provide, and care for their children. Beginning in the late twentieth century hundreds of African Americans embraced Yoruba traditions by founding the Kingdom of Oyotunji African Village near the city of Sheldon, South Carolina. This book highlights and discusses the common elements which introduce African Traditional Religion as one unified religion and not a collection of religions. Members of the Mwari cult engage primarily in rituals that are intended to influence the economy and maintain environmental balances. With the advent of Islam and Christianity in Africa—and the widespread conversion to these two monotheistic traditions—the numbers of adherents to African religions dwindled. The Nioniosse "rose up" from the underworld, and the Foulse descended from the sky. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1986. Africans do, however, precisely define the structure of their cosmos. Because of the oral nature of African sacred Much social ritual takes place at shrines, temples, and altars. These are usually colorful affairs with dancing, music, eating, drinking, praying (and other religious activities), wearing masks and costumes, and general merrymaking. The pantheon of deities is often given a collective name; for the Yoruba of Nigeria it is orisa, and for the Baganda of Uganda it is balubaale. The success of Islam is partially a result of its continued toleration of traditional beliefs and practices—or at least its allowance of indigenous beliefs to adapt to a form compatible with Islam. Modes of dress in African traditional religions vary depending upon the kind of devotee, geographical location, and a person's age. At this stage the client may reveal to the diviner the nature of his or her inquiry. The Fon of Benin, in western Africa, and their neighbors, the Yoruba of Nigeria, share many elements of a highly intricate cosmology. As in any democratic system, individuals may participate in ways that benefit their interests, their community roles, or their status as religious leaders. Africans believe that punishment may be communal or may pass from one generation to another. African Religion and its Influence on Christianity and Islam Traditional African religion has been the basis of spirituality for the people of Africa. It is forbidden in most places for the young to disobey the elders. New forms of Yoruba religion have been emerging that are quite different from the Yoruba orisa traditions in Nigeria. Similarly, the name for a medicine healer is sumãnkwafo, amawato, onisegun, and dibia. Certain antisocial behaviors, such as theft, witchcraft, and sorcery, are taboo, and offenders may suffer punishment of death. If delivery becomes difficult, the father of the child climbs onto the roof of the house to a spot above the mother's belly. Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. ——. Though such disorder at first comprises "negative" forces, ultimately it becomes the source of a workable social universe. Journal of Religion in Africa. As a female, Mawu is associated with the Moon and has power over the nighttime and the western universe. In several cultures a supreme deity performs creation through mere thought processes. In Understanding Contemporary Africa, edited by A.A. Gordon and D.L. African Traditional Religion: A Definition. The effect of colonisation on Africa's traditional religion is seen in the views of colonialists that African traditional religious practices are fetish, barbaric, ritualistic and demonic. In some traditional African cosmologies primordial divinities have a dispute in which subordinate gods must take sides. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner Publishers, 2001. Priests or priestesses watch over both community shrines and family shrines. They are thought to be the meeting places between heaven and earth and between visible and invisible worlds. ——. ASPECTS OF AFRICAN TRADITIONAL RELIGION 3 It represented the community, their solidarity, their permanence, their continuity. They carry out specialized duties. Bascom, William Russell. The diviner then recites the odu that appear in the divination castings. In African traditional religions the cosmogony (theory of the origin of the universe) usually describes humans appearing near the end of creation. African art is a central part of traditional religious expression. With autonomy came a revitalized study of religions, which recognized the religious pluralism of independent countries. . In traditional African cultures family members habitually offer food and drink to their ancestors. A male priest or a traditional ruler may wear a long hairstyle signifying a female deity, thereby assuming the persona of the deity and establishing a special connection with her. New York: J.P. Tarcher/Putnam, 1999. Such rites provide a transition from one age to the next. These religions have evolved and spread slowly for millennia; stories about gods, spirits, and ancestors have passed from one generation to another in oral mythology. Throughout Africa innumerable myths explain the creation of the universe, how man and woman appeared, the origin of the culture, and how people arrived in their current location. How can the ancestors live in the underworld and at the same time return to their lineage to live again? In the African cosmological vision death does not cease or annihilate human life—it is merely the inevitable transition to the next stage of life. During their long periods of apprenticeship diviners memorize Ifa verses, which may be as long as 256 odu. In one version of Fon cosmogony Nana Buluku, a creator god, gives birth to Mawu and Lisa. / Yet they are unlike humans in that they are immortal, superhuman, and transcendent. In avoiding the word "death," people uphold the belief that an individual is greater than death itself. Persian and Arab merchants introduced Islam in East Africa by trading in coastal towns up and down the eastern seaboard. Second, the physical well-being of a king reflects the well-being of his people, including their agricultural and hunting life. In this case, the book is important for students of comparative religion in universities and colleges who strive to understand the various religions and their practices. African traditional religion refers to the indigenous or autochthonous religion of the African people. Thus, religious founders are described in creation stories. From the 1500s to the 1900s the transatlantic slave trade took African religions to the Americas and the Caribbean. / The message and sacrifices contained in Ifa verses are a genre of oral tradition; they preserve the Yoruba religious worldview through myths, proverbs, songs, and poetry. The third element of religion is teaching traditions based on stories of significant figures, events and ideas from the past and beliefs about the future of time itself – like a spoiler alert about the end of the world. Somé, Malidoma P. The Healing Wisdom of Africa. An example is a story among Zulus in which a chameleon and then a lizard are sent to Earth by God to tell men that he has arranged death to be a part of the cycle of human life. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. The Sukuma and Nyamwezi people of Tanzania believe that twins are ancestors because multiple births indicate an excess of fertility. Certain sacred children may also become ancestors. African Spirituality: Forms, Meanings, and Expressions. Such mythic figures and culture heroes include Oduduwa in Nigeria, Shaka the Zulu in South Africa, and Osei Tutu in Ghana. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1985. One of the best, however, is the account by Malidoma Patrice Somé (born in 1956) of his own initiation as a member of the Dagara of Burkina Faso. See our updated Privacy Policy to find out more about cookies and how we use your data. For instance, a girl born after the death of a grandmother or mother is called Yetunde or Iyabo ("mother has returned"), and a boy born after the death of a grandfather or father is called Babatunde ("father has returned"). Devotees of traditional religions recognize domestic and wild animals as sacred and full of great power. 2. African cultures are, however, often flexible enough to absorb values and traditions from other religious belief systems. The African Experience: An Introduction. Worldmark Encyclopedia of Religious Practices. Such designs are incorporated into everyday objects; these may be a writing board, comb, game board, or scissors. While there have been great male and female religious leaders throughout Africa's history, none can be elevated above others in their importance to religious history. There is great variation in the traditions and rituals surrounding death. It initiates the process of attaining ancestorhood. African artists produce sacred icons and symbols of traditional religions in an enormous array of forms, both abstract and representational. African Traditional Religion during my semester at This means that traditional African religion cannot be separated from daily life. Practitioners of African traditional religions are generally familiar with the symbols and icons, but often only a few trained individuals can interpret the significance of such symbolic and iconic forms, which are used to imply religious meaning in initiation, divination, and secret societies. Clients listen to the poetic recital and identify aspects of it that relate to their problem. The original religions of Africa “are not static”; according to Mayo, “contacts with Christian and Islamic traditions have brought about transformations and syncretism of all three” a perfect example of the triple heritage of Africa[5]. Throughout most of Africa there is belief of a supreme being, described by one or more names, either in terms of activities or place of abode. In his novel Things Fall Apart (1958), Chinua Achebe (born in 1930) discusses the ethnic slurs used in his native Igbo language; Christians refer to followers of traditional religions as "nonbelievers, heathens, and lowly people (ndi nkiti)." Ifá: An Exposition of Ifá Literary Corpus. Oral narratives define morals and values for traditional religions, just as written texts do for religions that have sacred books. This notion built upon evolutionary theories that posited that cultures gradually evolve, becoming "less primitive" over time. Similar to the oral traditions, the arts of architecture, design, sculpture, textiles, dance, drumming, and music function as sacred "texts," transmitting and reinforcing traditional religions for new generations. Breaking the laws of the community offends the ancestors, who may wreak disaster upon the offender and community as well. Sacrificial rituals and festivals in which food is shared reinforce the communal bond between the participants, the ancestors, God, and the lesser deities. These deities consume no other foods, except perhaps kola nuts, a standard ritual ingredient in many African cultures. Marriage agreements usually involve both sets of parents of the couple to be married. Pan Afric…, African Sleeping Sickness (Trypanosomiasis), African Side-Necked Turtles: Pelomedusidae, African Religions: New Religious Movements, African Traditional Religions: Functionaries, African-American Award Winners and Honorees—Pulitzer Prize, Nobel Prize, Presidential Medal of Freedom, U.S. Postage Stamps, African-American Award Winners in Entertainment, African-American Mayors in U.S. Cities, Representatives in U.S. Congress, and Heads of State in the Americas, African-American Membership in U.S. $36.00 In principle, an individual's spirit can reside on Earth in another body three times, after which the cycle is complete; that individual may appear a fourth time as a fierce totemic animal, perhaps a leopard. In Yoruba religion, for example, each deity has Thus, strictly speaking, religion in its pristine form is no longer in existence. This is because, for them, Christianity lacks the breadth to signify all their religious feelings, values, and beliefs. The gods and ancestors are guardians of morality. Awolalu, J. Omosade. Religion in Igbo traditional society partakes fully of all the features of world traditional religion, including its beliefs, sacred myths, oral qualities, strong appeal to the hearts of adherents, high degree of ritualization, and possession of numerous participatory personages such as officiating elders, kings, priests, and diviners. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986. Although the standards for these colleges were high, the curriculum did not include the study of European or African religions. Shrines may be exclusively for family members or for public use. Such offerings are often placed in or on family shrines, which are usually located behind the family house or compound. At times supreme gods are understood to be females and males who complement each other as husband and wife or brother and sister, similar to Mawu-Lisa in the religion of the Fon of Benin. Birth, transition to adulthood, marriage, and death are four of the most prominent kinds of life events celebrated with religious ritual. African religions rely on the memory of oral stories. Gordon. Requirements for membership in an African indigenous religion have varied according to local traditions. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1979. This myth acknowledges the importance of primordial beings and their innate procreative powers, which ultimately benefit civilization. £14.00 female circumcision, polygamy, and approaches to gender relations—as peculiar compared with Western cultural practices. These sites include forests (or parts of forests), rivers, lakes, trees, mountains, waterfalls, and rocks. Graves play a more important religious role for farming communities than for pastoralists, who are constantly moving from one place to another. In many instances the Kaguru ancestors are approached communally. In indigenous traditions the leaders are the mythic beings and culture heroes who were responsible for founding empires, civilizations, clans, and lineages that later formed the core of the religioethnic traditions of their peoples. Diviners have vast accumulations of secret knowledge and are highly intuitive about human nature. The Ifa corpus is a large body of poetic oral narratives that are memorized by diviners and recited during divination performances. Lisa, as the male, commands the Sun and occupies the eastern universe. Cambridge, England: Roots and Branches, 1996. The religious beliefs, practices and the€human characteristics (such … African religiousness is not a matter of adherence to a doctrine but is concerned with supporting fecundity and sustaining the community. The main website African Traditional Religions, maintained by Chidi Denis Isizoh, is a useful guide to further reading. They relied on the backing of European medicinal remedies and colonial military power. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. Mligo has published several books and articles including Jesus and the Stigmatized (Pickwick Publication, 2011), Writing Academic Papers (Resource Publication, 2012), and Doing Effective Fieldwork (Resource Publication, 2013). Furthermore, scholars today assert that the supposedly accurate records of missionaries, colonial administrators, and the indigenous elite were susceptible to distortion. A classic example is the regional cult of Mwari (a creator god) in western Zimbabwe and eastern Botswana. Throughout the centuries of transatlantic slave trading, Africans took their religious practices to the Americas and the Caribbean. An example is the northern Yatenga society (of western Africa). Other festivals celebrate victory at war, the coronation of kings or chiefs, and changes in leadership. There is no standard or widespread characteristic of ancestorhood, but the criteria used throughout Africa share similarities. Contemporary African religious leaders include those who have been interested in reviving traditional religion. African indigenous religions are timeless, beginning with the origin of human civilization on the continent, perhaps as early as 200,000 b.c.e., when the species Homo sapiens is believed to have emerged. It is known worldwide for its powerful ability to represent abstract ideas and spiritual forces. This entry presents a brief, general picture of Africa's traditional religious heritage, focusing on the major beliefs because…, ••• Depending on the kind of religious activity, various religious authorities may preside over specific rituals. Theoretical Explorations in African Religion. These three scholars established the idea of the centrality of a Supreme God surrounded by myriad lesser gods. Nakedness is common in traditional African cultures. From the postcolonial years in the 1960s to the early 1990s, the study of African religions entered a mature phase. For the Ba Thonga people of southern Africa, among whom the ancestral system is well developed, ideas and ritual practices relating to the cult of the dead are central aspects of community life. Religion gives meaning and value to all forms of African artistic expression, including literature, music, visual art, and dance. Dietary restrictions take place for various reasons, including a person's stage of life, gender, or social class. In Ifa divination a client consults a diviner (babalawo), who throws a divining chain (opele) made of nuts on a mat and then recites the message of the Ifa deity who appears. Carved totemic and ritual objects may serve as important sources of knowledge for the newly initiated. 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